High-quality feed ingredients, scientific feed formulas and processing parameters, and reasonable processing equipment and processes are the three basic elements to ensure the quality of the feed. The first two are mainly involved in the procurement department, the technical department, and the quality control department. The feed mill mainly ensures the reasonable processing and manufacture of feed ingredients. Raw material costs account for 70%-85% of feed costs, and with the integration of the global economy, raw material prices mainly depend on supply and demand, therefore, there is greater uncertainty. With the emphasis and implementation of the refined management of the feed mill, the competition for the cost control capability of the feed production and processing process has gradually highlighted its importance.
The cost of feed production and processing is the production cost incurred by the feed mill for the production of products or the provision of labor services, including various direct material costs and manufacturing costs. Direct material costs include raw material expenses (which can be divided into raw material consumption and raw material loss), transportation costs, woven bags, labels, and sewing lines. Manufacturing expenses refer to the expenses incurred by the feed mill for organizing and managing production, including workshop staff wages, piece-rate wages, welfare expenses, labor insurance fees, social security fees, depreciation expenses, rental fees, environmental protection expenses, and power expenses (electricity fees, Coal, diesel, maintenance and other manufacturing expenses (office expenses, travel expenses, reception fees, daily necessities, etc.). The tapping potential of the feed mill is mainly based on the scientific and reasonable cost control of the feed processing process after eliminating the cost of feed raw material consumption, so as to reduce the cost of the processing process and create benefits for the enterprise.
1, electricity costs
The electricity bill is the largest part of the feed mill's power costs, and crushing is not only a necessary process in feed processing, but also one of the most expensive processes. The power consumption of the crusher accounts for about 40% of the total power consumption of the feed mill. The level of pulverization efficiency directly affects the cost of electricity consumption. The pulverization efficiency is adjusted with the type of raw materials required by the company, the pulverization size, the performance of the pulverizer, and the adjustment of the hammer screen gap (for example, using a 2.0 mm screen, the hammer screen gap is 10-13 mm; the hammer screen gap is adjusted according to the screen aperture) There is a great relationship between the hammer wear, the full load of the crusher, the Shakron and the pulse dust removal effect. The granulating electromechanical consumption accounts for about 30% of the total power consumption of the feed mill. The granulator operation has three key operating parameters: steam supply, feed rate, ring mold and press roll gap. The two operating parameters of steam supply and feed rate mainly depend on the moisture content of the material to be granulated and the composition of the formulation. If these two parameters are not properly adjusted, it is easy to block the machine, thus reducing the capacity of the granulator and increasing the power consumption per ton of the granulator. If the gap between the ring die and the pressure roller is too small, the ring die of the pressure roller will be easily worn; if the gap is too large, the material between the pressure roller and the ring die will be too thick and unevenly distributed, and the material will not be squeezed out. Blocking phenomenon. In addition, the larger the ring mode compression ratio, the higher the particle hardness, but the lower the output, the higher the electricity cost; the lower the opening ratio of the ring die, the more likely the blockage phenomenon occurs; the greater the wear of the press roll, the lower the yield, The wear of the ring mold is greater.
The main methods to reduce the power consumption of feed mills are:
1. The production process is fully prepared, the connection arrangement is compact, the production preparation time and equipment idling are reduced, and the waste of manpower, electricity, fuel and time costs is avoided. 2. Use the ladder price to organize production and reduce the cost of production electricity. The electricity price during peak hours is generally about 3 times that of electricity. Since the electricity bill is in the valley period at night, it is necessary to arrange the night shift to produce pellets and reduce the blockage of the night shift granulator. 3. Minimize the number and number of materials to be transferred (if necessary, increase the inventory of finished products, you can reduce the number of materials transferred). 4. In production, the central control and granulators control the current of the pulverizer and the granulator at 60%-70% of the rated current or even lower due to the fear of equipment jamming, etc., causing most of the feed mill to smash. Machines, granulators and other equipment are under-loaded and idling. The equipment such as pulverizers and granulators are not operated at full capacity, so the power consumption is increased. This requires the personal supervision of the factory manager and assistants. Warning, if necessary, give appropriate assessment and rewards; 5, reduce equipment downtime and repair time. 6, the use of different performance equipment and processes, the power consumption varies greatly. For example, when the soybean meal is finely pulverized, the power consumption of the wide multi-cavity pulverizer of the same power is reduced by more than 1/3 compared with the conventional water droplet pulverizer. It can be seen from the above analysis that the waste of electricity is widespread in some feed mills (especially poorly managed feed mills), and there is great potential to reduce the power consumption of the production process.
2, coal fee
Some feed mills use natural gas or oil as boiler fuel, and the cost of steam for fuel gas boilers is more than three times higher than that of coal-fired boilers. When using a coal-fired boiler, the feed mill can implement the settlement of coal by steam, rather than the settlement of coal by weight. Because it is difficult to guarantee the quality of coal by weight settlement, it is easy to adulterate. When the feed mill implements the settlement of coal by steam, it should pay attention to the amount of steam settled monthly. Because the data of the steam flow meter can be adjusted, the feed mill needs to prevent the boiler workers and coal suppliers from having illegal benefits. In theory, the amount of steam used should be less than 5% of the total amount of granulation.
The feed mill also needs to regularly check whether the steam pipeline is leaking, whether the steam separator is working properly, and whether the burner is maximally efficient. Special attention should be paid to the quality of coal. The poor quality of coal leads to a steam pressure of less than 0.6-0.8 MPa before decompression. It is difficult to provide dry saturated steam for granulator use, which affects granulation efficiency and pellet quality, and also leads to feed. The tempering moisture is low, which increases the loss of raw materials. Regularly check the insulation of steam pipes to minimize heat loss and reduce coal consumption. The feed mill should arrange production reasonably to avoid poor production connection. For example, when the steam reaches the use pressure, the steam equipment is not ready; or the steam equipment is ready, the steam does not meet the requirements for a long time, resulting in waste of steam and reduced production efficiency. It is best to achieve continuous production in the production arrangement of the pellets, avoiding the waste caused by the exhaust and condensed water every time the pelletizer is turned on.
3, reasonable control of parts inventory
The consumable parts directly used by the feed mill for production include ring molds, pressure rollers, hammers, sieves, hoppers, belts, bearings, motors, sewing machine parts, gears, sprockets, etc. The factory manager should analyze the monthly maintenance cost and strengthen the whole process management of the repair parts procurement. The key points are: 1. Develop reasonable inventory of parts and reduce the backlog of funds. 2. Establish accessories and consumption records. 3. Determine the standard range of normal consumption. 4. Regularly evaluate and evaluate the quality of the parts supplied by the supplier. For example, stainless steel ring molds with the same compression ratio and the same diameter are much higher than alloy steel ring molds, but the quality assurance time, ring mold service life and wear resistance of stainless steel ring molds are unmatched by alloy steel ring molds. The cost of use is lower than that of alloy steel ring molds. Even with stainless steel ring molds, the quality between manufacturers is uneven. According to the calculation of 420 machine stainless steel film 6500 yuan / piece, if each ring mold can produce 16,000 tons, the film cost is 0.41 yuan / t; if each film can only produce 0.8 million tons, the film cost is 0.81 yuan. In addition, it should be noted that frequent film changes can have a serious impact on the use time and yield of the film.
4, reasonable control of maintenance costs
The reasons for the high maintenance costs: First, do not pay attention to the restoration of equipment and tools, buy new ones; second, the low level of maintenance, resulting in high cost of repeated repairs, especially the number of repairs; It is the loss of repair parts, including poor quality of purchase, shoddy, missing, stolen, damaged, etc.; fourth, lack of monitoring of parts procurement of various feed mills, resulting in high procurement costs; fifth, high cost of maintenance auxiliary materials (steel, Welding rods, oxygen, acetylene, grinding wheels, cutting saw blades, etc.; Sixth, the preventive maintenance of the equipment is not enough, resulting in high maintenance costs after the equipment is completely destroyed. Equipment failure should be based on prevention, supplemented by repair. Through sound daily maintenance, the failure rate can be greatly reduced and the production can be carried out normally.
5, speed up the process equipment replacement
With the development of the feed industry, in recent years, the progress of upgrading and upgrading of feed processing equipment in China has accelerated, and the degree of specialization of feed processing equipment has been continuously improved. Feed equipment manufacturers have introduced energy-saving and efficient specialized new processing equipment to feed mills. Increasing production efficiency, reducing production costs, achieving stable product processing quality and increasing the added value of products have a significant effect. Feed mills should actively adopt equipment that can save energy and reduce consumption and operate at low cost. Especially for those production lines and equipment that have been in operation for many years, have high energy consumption, low production efficiency and poor safety performance, the technical transformation should be intensified and reduced. The overall cost of the production process.
When upgrading equipment, try to fully implement automated operations. For example, a production line with 5t of manual feed, automatic batching and finished product stacking, and a 40t automatic feed, automatic batching and mechanized stacking line, the latter requires fewer production workers, but The production capacity is very different. Under the premise of producing the same amount of feed, the labor cost of the latter is much lower than the former. The reason for the high labor cost is that the production process is limited, the automation of the production line, the degree of mechanization is low, and more labor has to be used, and the labor intensity of the worker is large, the cost of the loading and unloading process is high, and the per capita production efficiency is low. Therefore, from the beginning of the raw materials into the workshop to the whole process of the finished product stacking, the automatic operation is fully implemented, and the scope of manual work is reduced as much as possible, which not only saves labor costs, but also saves production costs such as time, space and safety. More importantly, as long as the equipment is normal, the production volume and quality are stable, and the manual operation, affected by human ability and work enthusiasm, the production volume and quality are unstable. When conditions permit, the automatic bulk feeding and bulk product transportation modes can be explored and promoted, saving the labor cost of packaging, packaging and unloading, and the cost of packaging materials.
6, feedstock raw material loss
The feedstock cost of the feed mill accounts for 70-85% of the production cost. Whether the raw material loss can be controlled at a reasonable level is an important indicator to measure the management level of a feed mill. Feed mills need to strictly implement the weighing system and inventory system of raw materials and finished materials, so as to find and analyze the causes of abnormal wear every month (or every half month). Reasons for loss of raw materials during feed processing include: dust loss (unloading, pulverizing and dust removal, cooling and dust removal, equipment and pipelines are not tightly sealed, resulting in leakage of materials); water loss (unloading, storage, crushing, cooling); Error loss (raw material weighs, batching scales, packing scales, etc.); deterioration and other losses (deterioration of raw materials or finished materials, high content of raw material impurities, not cleaned in time, broken bags, rodents, stolen, etc.).
Feed mills need to pay great attention to the loss of dust. For example, some feed mill corn unloading sheds and soybean meal unloading sheds are sealed on both sides and ceilings, which can be converted into three-sided and ceiling-sealed seals, leaving only one side in and out of the vehicle, thus reducing the amount of convective air, allowing soybean meal and corn. The dust naturally settles to reduce the dust loss caused by the wind. It is recommended that conditional feed mills choose an automatic hydraulic discharge platform as much as possible to minimize dust loss during bulk material unloading.
For many feed mills, water loss during feed processing accounts for more than 50% of the feedstock loss. The feed mill should pay close attention to the water content in the finished material. Normal water content is an important indicator. Excessive moisture content will cause the feed to be mildewed. Too low moisture will increase the loss of the feed mill and the moisture will be too high. Or too low is not conducive to the palatability of the finished material. Generally, the temperature of the finished material is not higher than the ambient temperature of 5 degrees, and the moisture is less than 13%. Water loss mainly occurs in the storage, crushing and cooling stages. In the storage chain, the feed mill should minimize the stock of raw materials in the summer silo to avoid high temperature evaporation of water. In the crushing process, excessive pulverization, lowering the temperature in the pulverizing chamber, controlling the wind pressure and suction volume of the pulse fan, and improving the pulverization efficiency should be avoided to control the hydration loss. For example, after a feed mill replaces the pulverizer, the pulverization efficiency is increased by 25%. According to the water loss of 0.5% in the normal pulverization process, after the pulverizer is replaced, the output is increased by 25%. It is conservatively estimated that the water loss during the pulverization process is reduced by 0.13%. According to the feed mill's monthly production of 10,000 tons of finished materials (calculated by 80% of the raw materials to be crushed), the loss can be reduced: 10,000 tons * 0.13% * 80% = 10.4 tons, calculated according to 3,000 yuan per ton of finished materials. Can reduce the loss of 31,200 yuan. In the cooling section, the cooling tower ventilation, time, speed, and leveler should be adjusted according to different seasons. Generally, the wind speed in the cooling duct is controlled at 15-20m/s. In addition, it is relatively simple to control the moisture content of the finished material by adjusting the height of the cooling tower leveler. This requires frequent attention to the moisture results of the finished materials in the laboratory for timely adjustment. In addition, an effective means to reduce the loss of raw materials is to carry out on-line monitoring and addition of moisture throughout the production process, especially to monitor the moisture of the feed after crushing, mixing, quenching and tempering, and to ensure the safety of the mixer. Or the modulation cylinder performs moisture addition to reduce the moisture loss of the raw material.
7, comprehensive consideration of raw material costs and processing and manufacturing costs
Considering and balancing the relationship between raw material costs and manufacturing costs of feed mills, this may be an important indicator for evaluating the level of formulation technology. For example, a viscous raw material with a large amount of sugar is cheap, but its processing property is poor. Because of its large sugar content, it is easy to stick to the warehouse and stick to the equipment, which not only affects the efficiency of mixing, but also causes the conveying equipment to be filled with materials due to long-term use. The load becomes heavier, which causes problems such as slower material feeding and low production efficiency of the mixer bottom. In severe cases, the hoist belt breaks. For example, adding multiple liquid components in the same formulation will result in prolonged mixing time, reduced batching batches, and increased production costs. The more complex the formulation, the longer the batching cycle, ie, the lower the production efficiency, the more the production cost will be. high. Therefore, the feed mill should communicate with the formulator in time the processing performance and processing cost of different raw materials, and the formulator should consider the raw material cost and the production and processing performance of the raw material when considering the formulation composition.
8, strengthen the training of feed mill staff and cadres
The quality of the feed mill staff determines the cost and quality of the feed mill process. To this end, on the one hand, it is necessary to strengthen the training of employees in key technical positions, encourage employees to conduct vocational skills appraisal, encourage employees to participate in various training and learning, and at the same time strengthen the management of safety awareness to reduce the occurrence of safety accidents. Key positions such as central control, machine repair, electrician, granulator, boiler worker, etc., the level of operation of these personnel directly affects equipment efficiency and feed processing costs, and can be appropriately tilted to these key technical positions in terms of wages and salaries. On the other hand, it is necessary to strengthen the cultivation of employees' loyalty to the company, do a good job in the career planning of employees, motivate the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of employees, and formulate process incentive measures to properly assess the production costs of employees.
At present, the cost control of feed processing involves feed processing technology, equipment, electrical and mechanical control, feed nutrition and production process management, on-site logistics management. Not only requires the feed factory director to have strong management ability, but also requires the feed factory director to have comprehensive professional knowledge, in order to do the on-site management, equipment management and quality management of the feed production process, so as to achieve a reasonable scheduling of the production process. And effectively grasp, in order to control the cost of the production process. To this end, the head of the feed mill needs to be trained and formed as a professional production manager.
9, scientific management
Dirty mess is a common problem in most feed mills. In the warehouse, the raw material stacking code is not neat, the different raw materials are mixed with each other, the stock raw materials are not marked, the raw materials are scattered all over the floor, the dripping and dripping are serious, and the rats are harmed. There is a lot of garbage in the workshop, the raw materials are piled up everywhere, the packaging and labels are littered, and the recycled materials are everywhere and there is no indication. The ground, equipment, doors, windows and roofs are all dust and cobwebs. To this end, feed mills should pay attention to the scientific and refined management of the daily work of the production site. Only by adopting scientific on-site management methods and mastering the real situation on the spot, it is possible to carry out detailed management of the feed mill in a targeted manner and take measures to reduce costs. The on-site management system of the feed mill includes: quality control system, energy-saving control system, environmental control system, equipment management system, logistics control system, process control system, and production operation standardization system. The commonly used methods for on-site management of feed mills are: 6S management, Lean production management, quality cost management (QCM), full production maintenance management (TPM), ISO14000, ISO18000, etc., which can be used in the process of production management. These management methods continuously implement standardization, standardization and institutionalization of production process management. For each cost control point, come up with a specific implementation plan, and through the PDCA (plan, implementation, inspection, improvement) and SCDA (standardization, implementation, inspection, improvement) circular operation, to achieve step-by-step improvement, and continuously reduce The cost of the process.
10, control security costs
If the feed factory is not aware of safety management, there are safety hazards at the production site, which will lead to more safety accidents and higher safety costs. Therefore, the feed mill must do a good job in fire safety, fire prevention, dust explosion prevention, equipment damage prevention and prevention of personal safety problems.
The cost control of the feed processing process is a systematic project, which requires full participation in the control. It is impossible to complete by a certain person or team, and a complete cost control system must be established. This system should include cost control organization, cost control management system, cost control assessment indicators (such as material loss, power consumption, maintenance costs, etc. in the production process), cost control objectives, and scientific cost assessment incentive system. In the process of operation of the cost control system, the cost control activities are carried out frequently, and the energy conservation and consumption reduction measures are appropriately selected through rational selection of energy conservation methods; the maintenance and repair and maintenance of preventive equipment are used to increase the extent of repair and disuse; The overall arrangement of the production process to improve production efficiency; through the integrated research of process, cost, quality and nutrition, seek scientific and economic processing technology, so that the cost of the production process is under control. The key to cost control activities is data statistics and assessment. The purpose of control is to improve production efficiency, reduce the production cost per unit of feed, and ensure and improve product quality. Through the assessment and analysis, measures to reduce each cost control point in the processing process are proposed, and then implemented, inspected and evaluated to achieve continuous improvement.
Hunting Knife Kits,Handmade Hunting Knife,Handmade Pocket Knife,Handmade Knife
YangJiang Junxiong Trading & Industry Company Co.,Ltd , https://www.cn-sundo.com