What is the difference between austenitic stainless steel and martensitic stainless steel?

Mainly magnetic,
Austenite is not magnetic, and martensite is magnetic.
Austenite austenite is an interstitial solid solution in which carbon dissolves in γ-Fe, which is commonly denoted by symbol A. It still maintains a face-centered cubic lattice of γ-Fe. Its carbon-dissolving capacity is relatively large. At 727°C, the dissolved carbon is ωc=0.77%, and the soluble carbon at 2.148°C is 2.11%. Austenite is a stable structure that exists at high temperatures above 727°C. Austenitic plasticity is good, and it is the required structure for most steels under pressure processing at high temperatures. Austenite is not magnetic. Martensitic quenching is the process of immersing austenitized workpieces in a liquid medium (salt bath or alkaline bath) at a slightly higher or lower temperature than the martensite point of the steel, and maintaining the appropriate time, After the outer layer reaches the temperature of the medium, it is taken out of air-cooled to obtain the quenching process of the martensite structure, also called step quenching. The graded quenching can effectively reduce the phase change stress and thermal stress, and reduce the quenching deformation and cracking tendency because it stays at the staged temperature until the temperature inside and outside the workpiece is uniform. Graded quenching is suitable for alloy steels and high-alloy steel workpieces with high deformation requirements, and also for carbon steel workpieces with small cross-sectional dimensions and complex shapes. Stainless steel, which can be adjusted to its mechanical properties by heat treatment of martensitic stainless steels, is, generally speaking, a type of hardenable stainless steel. Typical grades are Cr13 type, such as 2Cr13, 3Cr13, 4Cr13 and so on. High hardness after the fire, different tempering temperatures have different toughness combinations, mainly used for steam turbine blades, cutlery, surgical instruments. According to the difference in chemical composition, martensitic stainless steel can be divided into martensitic chromium steel and martensitic chromium nickel steel. According to different organization and strengthening mechanism, it can be divided into martensite stainless steel, martensite and semi-austenitic (or semi-martensitic) precipitation hardening stainless steel and maraging stainless steel. Martensite is named after human life: For people who learn materials, the name of "Martensite" is very strong. So how many people know about Adolf Martens? In fact, the "horse" of martensite refers to him. There are many organizations named after people in the iron-carbon organization. Today we talk about these names and the stories of the sages who are behind them. Martensite Martensite, as previously described, was named from Adolf Martens (1850-1914). This Mr. Madsens or Martens was a German metallurgist. He worked as an engineer in the construction of railway bridges in his early years and he came into contact with the rising material inspection methods. So he used a home-made microscope (!) to observe the metallurgical structure of iron, and in 1878 published the "microscopic study of iron", describing the morphology of metal fractures and the metallurgical structure after polishing and acid leaching. (We seem to have done quite a lot of this work.) He observed that the microstructure of the pig iron during cooling and crystallization is very regular (maybe there is martensite), and it is predicted that microscope research will be the most useful. One of the analytical methods (foresightedness). He also served as director of the Institute of Mechanical Crafts, Royal Berlin University, the predecessor of the Staatliche Materialprüfungsamt, where he established the first class metallographic laboratory. In 1895, the International Society of Materials Testing was established and he served as a vice chairman. Until now, there is still a prestigious award in Germany named after him.
Martensitic stainless steel is a kind of stainless steel that can be adjusted by heat treatment (quenching, tempering). In a word, it is a kind of hardenable stainless steel. This characteristic determines that these steels must have two basic conditions: First, there must be an austenite phase zone in the equilibrium phase diagram, and long-term heating in the temperature range of the zone, so that the carbides are solid-solubilized into the steel. After that, quenching forms martensite, that is, the chemical composition must be controlled in the γ or γ+α phase region, and the second is to make the alloy form a passivation film that is resistant to corrosion and oxidation, and the chromium content must be above 10.5%. According to the difference of alloying elements, it can be divided into martensite

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